# Introduction

If you’re an Excel beginner, this is the perfect place to start.

**Microsoft Excel** is one of the most used software applications of all time. Hundreds of millions of people around the world use Microsoft Excel. You can use Excel to enter all sorts of data and perform financial, mathematical or statistical calculations.

1 Range: A range in Excel is a collection of two or more cells. This chapter gives an overview of some very important range operations.

2 Formulas and Functions: A formula is an expression which calculates the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formulas and are already available in Excel.

## Introduction +

Take the next step! You can find related examples and features on the right side of each chapterat the bottom of each chapter. Below you can find an overview.

1 Range: AutoFill | Fibonacci Sequence | Custom Lists | Comments | Hide Columns or Rows | Skip Blanks | AutoFit | Transpose | Split Cells | Flash Fill | Move Columns

2 Formulas and Functions: Most Used Functions | Subtract | Multiply | Divide | Square Root | Percentage | Named Range | Dynamic Named Range | Paste Options | Discount

# Functions

Discover how **functions in Excel** help you save time. If you are new to functions in Excel, we recommend you to read our introduction to Formulas and Functions first.1 Count and Sum: The most used functions in Excel are the functions that count and sum. You can count and sum based on one criteria or multiple criteria.2 Logical: Learn how to use Excel’s logical functions, such as IF, AND, OR and NOT.

3 Cell References: Cell references in Excel are very important. Understand the difference between relative, absolute and mixed reference, and you are on your way to success.

4 Date & Time: To enter a date, use the “/” or “-” characters. To enter a time, use the “:” (colon).

5 Text: Excel has many functions to offer when it comes to manipulating text strings.

6 Lookup & Reference: Learn all about Excel’s lookup & reference functions, such as VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, MATCH, INDEX and CHOOSE.

7 Financial: This chapter illustrates Excel’s most popular financial functions.

8 Statistical: An overview of some very useful statistical functions in Excel.

9 Round: This chapter illustrates three functions to round numbers in Excel. ROUND, ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN.

10 Formula Errors: This chapter teaches you how to deal with some common formula errors.

11 Array Formulas: This chapter helps you understand array formulas in Excel. Single cell array formulas perform multiple calculations in one cell.

## Functions +

Become an Excel pro! You can find related examples and functions on the right side of each chapterat the bottom of each chapter. Below you can find an overview.

1 Count and Sum: Countif | Count Blank/Nonblank Cells | Count Characters | Not Equal To | Count Cells with Text | Sum | Running Total | Sumif | Sumproduct

2 Logical: If | Comparison Operators | Or | Roll the Dice | Ifs | Contains Specific Text | Switch | If Cell is Blank | Absolute Value

3 Cell References: Copy a Formula | 3D-reference | External References | Hyperlinks | Union and Intersect | Percent Change | Add a Column | Absolute Reference | Address

4 Date & Time: DateDif | Today’s Date | Date and Time Formats | Calculate Age | Time Difference | Weekdays | Days until Birthday | Last Day of the Month | Add or Subtract Time | Quarter | Day of the Year

5 Text: Separate Strings | Count Words | Text to Columns | Find | Search | Change Case | Remove Spaces | Compare Text | Substitute vs Replace | Text | Concatenate | Substring

6 Lookup & Reference: Vlookup | Tax Rates | Index and Match | Two-way Lookup | Offset | Case-sensitive Lookup | Left Lookup | Locate Maximum Value | Indirect | Two-column Lookup | Closest Match | Compare Two Columns | Xlookup

7 Financial: PMT | Loans with Different Durations | Investment or Annuity | Compound Interest | CAGR | Loan Amortization Schedule | NPV | IRR | Depreciation | Profit Margin

8 Statistical: Average | Negative Numbers to Zero | Random Numbers | Rank | Percentiles and Quartiles | Box and Whisker Plot | AverageIf | Forecast | MaxIfs and MinIfs | Weighted Average | Mode | Standard Deviation | Frequency

9 Round: Chop off Decimals | Nearest Multiple | Even and Odd | Mod | Rounding Times

10 Formula Errors: IfError | IsError | Aggregate | Circular Reference | Formula Auditing | Floating Point Errors | IFNA

11 Array Formulas: Count Errors | Count Unique Values | Count with Or Criteria | Sum Every Nth Row | Sum Largest Numbers | Sum Range with Errors | Sum with Or Criteria | Most Frequently Occurring Word | Dynamic Arrays | LET function

Check out all 300 examples.

## Data Analysis

1 Sort: Custom Sort Order | Sort by Color | Reverse List | Randomize List | SORT function

2 Filter: Number and Text Filters | Date Filters | Advanced Filter | Data Form | Remove Duplicates | Outlining Data | Subtotal | Unique Values | FILTER function

3 Conditional Formatting: Manage Rules | Data Bars | Color Scales | Icon Sets | Find Duplicates | Shade Alternate Rows | Compare Two Lists | Conflicting Rules | Heat Map

4 Charts: Column Chart | Line Chart | Pie Chart | Bar Chart | Area Chart | Scatter Plot | Data Series | Axes | Chart Sheet | Trendline | Error Bars | Sparklines | Combination Chart | Gauge Chart | Thermometer Chart | Gantt Chart | Pareto Chart

5 Pivot Tables: Group Pivot Table Items | Multi-level Pivot Table | Frequency Distribution | Pivot Chart | Slicers | Update Pivot Table | Calculated Field/Item | GetPivotData

6 Tables: Structured References | Table Styles | Quick Analysis

7 What-If Analysis: Data Tables | Goal Seek | Quadratic Equation

8 Solver: Transportation Problem | Assignment Problem | Capital Investment | Shortest Path Problem | Maximum Flow Problem | Sensitivity Analysis | System of Linear Equations

9 Analysis ToolPak: Histogram | Descriptive Statistics | Anova | F-Test | t-Test | Moving Average | Exponential Smoothing | Correlation | Regression

## VBA

1 Create a Macro: Swap Values | Run Code from a Module | Macro Recorder | Use Relative References | FormulaR1C1 | Add a Macro to the Toolbar | Enable Macros | Protect Macro

2 MsgBox: MsgBox Function | InputBox Function

3 Workbook and Worksheet Object: Path and FullName | Close and Open | Loop through Books and Sheets | Sales Calculator | Files in a Directory | Import Sheets | Programming Charts

4 Range Object: CurrentRegion | Dynamic Range | Resize | Entire Rows and Columns | Offset | From Active Cell to Last Entry | Union and Intersect | Test a Selection | Possible Football Matches | Font | Background Colors | Areas Collection | Compare Ranges

5 Variables: Option Explicit | Variable Scope | Life of Variables | Type Mismatch

6 If Then Statement: Logical Operators | Select Case | Tax Rates | Mod Operator | Prime Number Checker | Find Second Highest Value | Sum by Color | Delete Blank Cells

7 Loop: Loop through Defined Range | Loop through Entire Column | Do Until Loop | Step Keyword | Create a Pattern | Sort Numbers | Randomly Sort Data | Remove Duplicates | Complex Calculations | Knapsack Problem

8 Macro Errors: Debugging | Error Handling | Err Object | Interrupt a Macro | Subscript Out of Range | Macro Comments

9 String Manipulation: Separate Strings | Reverse Strings | Convert to Proper Case | Instr | Count Words

10 Date and Time: Compare Dates and Times | DateDiff Function | Weekdays | Delay a Macro | Year Occurrences | Tasks on Schedule | Sort Birthdays

11 Events: BeforeDoubleClick Event | Highlight Active Cell | Create a Footer Before Printing | Bills and Coins | Rolling Average Table

12 Array: Dynamic Array | Array Function | Month Names | Size of an Array

13 Function and Sub: User Defined Function | Custom Average Function | Volatile Functions | ByRef and ByVal

14 Application Object: StatusBar | Read Data from Text File | Write Data to Text File | Vlookup

15 ActiveX Controls: Text Box | List Box | Combo Box | Check Box | Option Buttons | Spin Button | Loan Calculator

16 Userform: Userform and Ranges | Currency Converter | Progress Indicator | Multiple List Box Selections | Multicolumn Combo Box | Dependent Combo Boxes | Loop through Controls | Controls Collection | Userform with Multiple Pages | Interactive Userform